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Keep me logged in. Want an ad-free experience? Subscribe to Independent Premium. View offers. Theme parks continue to draw in thrill-seekers despite the risks - so why are we so addicted? You can form your own view. Subscribe now. Shape Created with Sketch. Inside Banksy's Dismaland Show all The Bill Barminski - Cardboard security entrance, visitors must first get through security to enter the park. This can include being searched, emptying bags and even being instructed to touch your toes. Dismaland opened to the general public this weekend and everyone seems to be talking about it.
Many have speculated whether long queues and website crashing issues are purposeful in order to make Dismaland that little bit more dismal. Visitors are handed their very own guide to the park inside, featuring the names of the installations and show-times. On the front it brands Dismaland "the UK's most disappointing visitor attraction".
An overview of the park, set on the former site of Tropicana. Tropicana was closed in the 's and since then has had rumours of regeneration. Devices called ice slides used in Russia in the s are often considered to be the ancestors of the roller coaster, but though they bore resemblances to the amusement park roller coaster, they were not machines in the fullest sense of the term. These early slides were limited in their kinetic effects on riders. Later designs would make the roller coaster more practical, as it was inconvenient to ask riders to climb to the top of platforms just to descend A map of the defunct theme park Freedomland: nodes, zones, points of connection.
It was reported that onlookers took up a collection for his family in case he died while trying the looping coaster. The roller coaster came to the United States in in the form of the Mauch Chunk Railway, a coal mine car that was converted into a thrilling runaway train ride. In LaMarcus Thompson was the first to patent a roller coaster.
In the years that followed roller coasters developed swiftly. As new amusement parks sprang up, they often included one or more prominent roller coasters — which in turn helped establish the unique character of the park — and continued The primogeniture of the modern roller coaster — the Mauch Chunk switchback railway. Some reports indicate that due to the perfect loops created on such rides, riders would experience as many as 12 Gs the force resulting from acceleration during the loop.
Then I heard piercing screams. Traver, which some call the only avantgarde roller coaster ever built. Physics teachers, for example, can use roller coasters to teach many of the principles of gravity, acceleration and G-force. For many such fans the excitement of learning about famous roller coasters on the Internet and in amusement park history books and the fashioning of their own homemade, working models of roller coasters, is heightened by the actual riding of the rides in the park.
Such excitement takes on the order of religious pilgrimage as fans opt to spend large sums of money travelling the world to ride as many famous roller coasters as possible. People do not necessarily attach personality to the carousel but with the roller coaster a new dimension of the theme park machine develops. In this case each machine has a different personality. People assess differences between wooden and steel tube versions, they decide what time of the day to ride the coaster to maximize speed and visceral effects on the body and they consider whether riding in the front or the back car is best.
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The passivity of life — whether working Aboard the Griffon at Busch Gardens Europe: fright, weightlessness, the push of the Earth back on the body and joy all combine in one moment on the roller coaster. Roller coasters do far more than remind us who we are; they tell us who we wish to be and thus they speak of our existential and psychological needs as much as our basic values. In an interesting The roller coaster, captured like a double helix in space, gives a sense of its foundational and genetic role in the theme park.
Roller coasters also indicate an inability to persist. They tell a different story, not of overcoming obstacles but of being overcome by the machine. They suggest that as easily as such devices can give people pleasure, they can take it away. At such moments riders realize that the cost of their desire to be thrilled is high and, ultimately, that they have little autonomy when strapped into a mechanical device of their own will. Because the roller coaster and the amusement park are so intimately connected, and because the presence of the thrill ride may suggest less reliance on theming and mood landscapes within a park, it is not surprising that Disney theme parks immediately opposed themselves to the device.
After Disneyland and subsequent theme parks were opened, patrons complained that Disney parks were lacking, notably because they had no real roller coasters. Though their parks featured some prominent ones, such as Space Mountain, Matterhorn Bobsleds and Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, people felt that these were thematic delivery devices rather than true white knuckle rides.
What the roller coaster indicates is the uneasy tension that is still present between the amusement park and the theme park. As long as the roller coaster exists, it will continue to mediate the greatest of tensions between the atavistic amusement park and the contemporary themed park.
In a personal sense being on a ride enacts a similar suspension of normality. Riding a roller coaster or a troika involves a liminal state — being betwixt and between, being in the womb, being in the midst of things, expressing the most extreme human emotions, fear, death, danger, sex, ecstasy. In this way a theme park ride discards both the social and psychological orders of the day; it is as revolutionary, if not more so, than the greatest works of art. Every park likes to have bragging rights to the fastest, wildest ride for at least one year.
While part of the mechanical arms race may be attributed to the desires of consumers to attain something new in a consumerist world, another part may be attributed to the powerful myths that are created as new rides are designed, built and opened. With each ride design anticipation for the next ride mounts. On Internet fan and blog sites ride enthusiasts discuss rumours surrounding planned attractions or, in some cases, debate the merits of ride alterations, such as retheming a ride, demolishing it or selling it to another park.
In some cases enthusiasts mount national or even international campaigns to save rides from demolition and some gain status as National Historic Landmarks in the United States. Theme park rides, in no small part due to the prominent role of ride designers and builders, achieve a mythopoetic status. Even for the non-enthusiast — the everyday rider or theme park visitor — the roller coaster or park ride can have a magical status, in part due to its black box aesthetics and the sense of mystery and danger attached to rides.
Theme park documentaries can damage this aesthetic by exposing the inside of a ride, showing us how it works, and thus lessening the suspense that comes when we board a ride. This lessening of the aesthetic can also have consequences in terms of safety perceptions. When a theme park trainer at AstroWorld and someone who frequently operated the rides on busy days, I was accustomed to the issue of safety.
Stories of gruesome deaths and terrible accidents were the subject of water cooler talk among veteran and new employees. Employees were taught to watch all areas of the ride — if the ride was moving and someone jumped off or if someone entered the ride area while the ride was in motion, the attendant had to immediately stop the ride and call security. There are few arenas in any society in which teenagers are charged with the operation of multi-million dollar machines of incredible power and potential danger.
For visitors to the theme park the danger of the ride its black box aesthetics is The work of theme park designers is always a mental quest to materialize the dreams of the mind in the material creations of rides, park technologies and attractions. In the United States, in part due to poor safety conditions at non-theme park venues for example, bungee jumping and to the telescoping effect that occurs when a ride malfunctions, legislation has been developed to deal with ride safety.
For workers in the theme park, there are two primary emphases — one is making certain that the patron is happy, the other is to attend to the safety of the patron. Though in many nations automobiles result in astronomically more deaths and injuries, theme park accidents receive much more attention. In the United States when a roller coaster becomes stuck for a substantial period of time it is often broadcast live on national news. An assumption shared by both theme park managers and theme park patrons is that the theme park operates like a machine.
In the minds of people who frequent theme parks there are often fears of malfunctioning rides and surly or dangerous park workers. Like the still shot Regardless of the efforts of designers, managers, workers and even patrons, the theme park projects its own desires beneath its surfaces. At historic Coney Island visitors became accustomed to the architectural spectacle of the Iron Tower.
After descending it, patrons could drink milk from the mechanical udders of a fake cow. With new technological advances in both mechanical science and scenic and interior design fantasy spaces could be produced with greater ease. Now it was possible to do more than re-create a landscape from the past or from a distant location; it was possible to create robotic animals, people and fantasy creatures.
Just as the roller coaster provided a kinetic form of architecture for the amusement park, the amusement machine gave it a sense of performance. As people exited the moving architecture of roller coasters, their eyes were met with more movement in the form of mechanized amusements. Whereas the ethnological exoticism of the parades of people at the fairs produced amazement without desire to know, the new mechanical aesthetics of the amusement park combined surface amazement with a desire to understand how the machine produced its illusions.
And, where the roller coaster symbolized the inhuman side of the amusement park — the out of control machine — the mechanized device offered its ironically human side, the robot that looks human but is not. What was needed was a way to incorporate the robot into the theme lands of the theme park. Much like the motion capture technology that would later dominate the video game industry, Disney worked with engineers to attempt to duplicate the movements of actors and dancers like Buddy Ebsen in mechanical models. What the robot establishes for all theme parks is an emphasis on a mechanical form that is at once entertaining and strangely real.
The history of the dark ride dates to where at the PanAmerican Exposition A Trip to the Moon gave people the thrill of travel without travelling. The terror of the indoor ride is built not on the disorientation of being spun around or being thrown back and forth, like troikas and ship rides, nor does it rely on the violence of speed alone, as with the roller coaster. Instead it uses darkness and isolation and all that they symbolically entail to create its thrills. While inside the dark ride, one is literally taken into another world.
In whichever form the dark ride may be considered the most liminal of rides in the park; it is also the most psychological. The experience of going through the ride is heightened by the separation that occurs shortly after boarding: one is removed by the darkness from the space of the living, symbolized by light. The darkness takes hold of the rider, and around each turn of the car is an unexpected occurrence. Images of death, despair, destruction, of fright are being thrown at you, but you survive it. A Trip to the Moon was revolutionary in that it allowed people to freely experience a space; in a sense, they were given more control of the experience of the amusement story, or at least the illusion of control.
As amusement technology develops parks deploy sensory technologies to further give patrons the sense of being inside a story. Modern rides also use audio-animatronic technologies, as in Pirates of the Caribbean and the Haunted Mansion at Disney theme parks. In such cases characters played by the robots extend the interest in story or cinematic narrative. While some traditional fun houses create sensory experiences only though quick shocks and generic references to ghosts, dungeons and demons, in the newest dark rides technology provides the possibility of creating entire narratives, which though only lasting a few minutes nevertheless give patrons the sense of having entered and then exited another world.
The switchbacks, scenic railways and toy trains are merely trolley cars. As people were physically thrown together on human roulette wheels, human pool tables and other sorts of kinetic thrills, they were socially thrown in close proximity with one another. One of the most important The popular Dew Drop at Steeplechase Park threw people down a slide, causing them to reflect on their own bodies and the bodies of others. Edwin E. While Steeplechase promoted the apotheosis of the couple and the value of random strangers meeting and frolicking, Disneyland emphasized the family as the basic unit of the theme park.
Disney forged many of his theme park fantasies in correlation with his daughter and the overall frame of the family: amusements must be safe, clean and focused on the enjoyment of the family. As a result of this shift in the social machine many critics have charged that the theme park has lost its role as catalyst for social and personal exploration.
It is stiff and solemn, and its buildings lack the other-world suggestiveness of our Coney Island erections. Coney Island is frankly devoted to fun, the fantastic, the gay, the grotesque. Luna Park was certainly more themed than Blackpool, but Blackpool perhaps had something more authentic that it maintains to this day. Today the Pleasure Beach persists in striking contrast with other theme parks throughout the United Kingdom.
Gags like a rocking boat are complemented by recreations of the Great Flood, a storm at sea and rooms of animals. While the ride may not be as thrilling as the latest multi-million dollar simulation movie ride, it proves that public amusement has a history. Like this famous ride, the other attractions of Blackpool give a critique of the popular theme park trend. In the case of Blackpool there is no explicit theming; instead historic rides, historical plaques and dioramas featuring former park owners and managers provide an amusement order that is decidedly anti-thematic and anti-corporate.
For these people the machine, not the theme, the corporate logo, the movie-themed ride or stunt show, provides the only amusement truth. While working at AstroWorld I learned of a curious fellow known as Flumie. Flumie proves that even inside theme parks, the machine can take prominence and can imbue an everyday individual like Flumie with serious social capital. As contemporary Blackpool illustrates, one of the interesting facets of the amusement to theme park evolution is the presence of throwback or atavistic amusement parks in the era of theme parks.
Like Blackpool Kennywood resolutely stands as an amusement park in an era of theme parks. It is a unique park in that it does not aspire to offer themed attractions and it allows people to bring in outside concessions. The section also includes a strange site — a wall of homage to the early amusement parks of the east coast. The amusement park, like the theme park, is composed of machines — functional, robotic and conceptual.
Machines are used only as they can be themed and deployed as conceptual tools to connect people to the greater theme park narrative. The machine gives the theme park an important foundation that it must build on in order for it to persist, but the ways that it uses the machine are strikingly different, as Blackpool and Kennywood help emphasize. As the machine is further melded into the thematic landscapes of the contemporary theme park its greatest use is as a part of the larger symbolic order that is narrative: the story.
Plato1 In something new befell the amusement park. A noted inventor of the infant incubator and reputable doctor named Martin A. Couney presented the public with a scene the likes of which had not been seen before — live human babies. Instead of having to travel to an exotic country to see people and sights of a radically different nature, the amusement park visitor only had to enter the gates of the Coney Island amusement parks and travel in a virtual sense. Unlike the theme park as ride — in which the patron is thrown by a ride but does not really interact with it — in the theme park as performance, a key moment emerges: the individual is not simply watching leisure activities, he is a part of them.
What pleasure gardens predicted was the desire of people to fully partake in their amusements. In the case of entertainment that evolved conterminously with the amusement park, including theatre and vaudeville, there is a distinction between the entertainment and the audience.
Just as children play house in order to test the social roles expected of them later in life, amusement park patrons used the new world of Coney Island to suspend Dr Martin A. Couney next to his famous infant incubators at Luna Park. For seriousness seeks to exclude play, whereas play can very well include seriousness.
Fantasy, in its fullest, must be given a place and this place, in turn, is asked to perform. As ushered in at the early amusement parks, the theme park form as play constitutes one of the most involved forms of popular performance. In the s architecture, along with theme parks, embarked on a path in which the building emerges from its functional identity and takes on a more symbolic one. While modernist Mies emphasized an austere style that highlighted function, the new architecture of the theme park abandoned subtlety and form for impression and symbolism.
When form did exist, it always lurked under the surface, disguised with the aesthetic and technological effects of theming.
Architecture always shows, but in the case of the theme park the showing is its primary function. Like Dollywood authenticity is emphasized at the European-themed park but, more than Dollywood, Busch Gardens Europe stresses architecture as its own performance. In Killarney Ireland , which was formerly themed as Hastings, England, patrons can board a simulator ride that replicates Irish mythology in miniature, or take up an Irish dancing show, all the while surrounded by quaint Irish towns of the past. In Germany, Das Festhaus, which seats 2, people, immediately communicates with its iconic structure.
The origins of performative architecture, however, pre-date this park. Beginning with Disneyland, architecture as performance creates a legacy in all theme parks that would follow. Cinderella Castle is a fabricated building that does more than any functional space can — while at Disneyland Resort Paris, I witnessed numerous people reduced to tears upon sight of the castle. Such a moment, like a moment in which one is brought to tears while watching an amazing theatrical production or opera, illustrates the transformation that occurred as amusement parks moved beyond being places of the fantastic or even the sublime.
The new theme park achieves the ultimate performance in that it convinces the patron, and often the worker, that architecture and its varied stories can have deep, personal and lasting meanings. Theme park architecture is no longer merely a form of representation, it is you — the most intimate of all cultural possibilities. Famous fashion model Fabio is one of the guests of honour, but the publicity event is spoiled as a goose hits Fabio in the face, breaking his nose and killing itself in the process.
The poetic Apollo gives way in this moment of the real. Fabio said, following the mishap with the goose, that the park should implement measures to make sure that it never happens again. The performance, and the facade, break down; the Apollonian gives way to the Dionysian. Incidents like these, and more serious injuries, even deaths, momentarily affect the performance that is made possible by architecture and its integrated use of theming. Its culmination is Imagineering. The effect is one that helped transform the theme park into an effective story. They are the illustrated book covers leading to the stories that await inside.
Creating a sense of time, place and mood, Imagineered architecture can, in a single instant, transport you to a distant land. A building can no longer be a functional space the factory , and it can no longer be an avant-garde one the Coney Island amusement park , it must now become a story in and of itself, and it must be used in decisive ways to connect to the real lives of people who visit theme parks. Whatever the associations might be with people — a sense of family, a sense of country, a sense of the good life, a sense of thrill — these must be worked into the structures of the buildings and facades of the theme park.
In turn, these structures must be mobile — they must be deployed in imaginative ways and they must change as they interact with patrons. In short, they must wane like life itself and, ultimately, they must be playful in their various narratives of the world. Back at Coney Island, one of the most interesting animal spectacles took place at Luna Park in Topsy was a famous performer elephant that eventually grew tired of the constant demand of entertaining people, and the disgruntled pachyderm took out her aggression on some of her handlers, reportedly killing three of them.
A decision was made to involve Topsy in the greater spectacle of the amusement park. Poisoned carrots did not do the trick, and eventually the park set up a public electrocution of Topsy that was recorded for prosperity by Thomas Edison. Animals that resist the transformation of nature that is characterized by the amusement park are dealt with harshly. Like The thrilling mysteries of animals were displayed for the many visitors to Coney Island. Though animal shows are in theory controlled, an animal can never be fully part of a show ensemble.
The animal, like the nature that the theme park imposes itself upon, often strikes back in unpredictable ways. At night, animals, much like human performers, march back to their quarters known as night houses. They are led by their trainers who use whistles and bells to request their evening return so they will not get in the way of gardeners who work diligently at night.
Early in his career, Walt Disney saw the value of the animal, especially in animation. During work on the animated classic Bambi, Walt Disney requested that live deer be brought into his studio so that he could analyse their every movement. This reality permeated every facet of our design process. SeaWorld uses the powerful symbolic associations of the killer whale to connect patrons with performing animals.
As Susan G. Davis argues, the effect is a powerful corporate one that utilizes nature in the service of culture. The animal shows at theme parks give a glimpse of another reality — the wild one that is typically out of view of the experiences of the everyday customer. Parks like Animal Kingdom and SeaWorld suggest that they only show people what animals are really like, but as is the case with any recreation in a The visitor is always caught up in a crowd; like being in society itself, the individual is made aware of others and must move in relation to them.
Many theme parks, including Dollywood and Busch Gardens, use animals as a means of stressing conservation with patrons. While it is debatable that theme parks can lay claim to conservation — they are, after all, spaces of culture imposed upon nature — they use the idea of conservation and the symbolic associations of animals to powerful performative effect. In order for a theme park patron to be present in a park — that is, conscious — she must be made a participant in all that unravels around her.
Interestingly, this concept emerges much sooner than the late s with Disneyland. For performance to supplant reality it must achieve absolute meaning in the patron. At Coney Island a similar move was afoot to bring the park patron into closer proximity with the amusements. He or she must be given a reason to throw aside the moral orders of the society that are placed on hold while in the park. It makes you feel expansive, like you are greater than you. At theme parks like the Holy Land Experience in Orlando, Florida, there is an even deeper connection made between the experiences of the customer and the themes developed in the amusement venue.
At the end of the Scriptorium and a dramatic Ten Commandments room, patrons exit through a typical room, complete with computers, a television and all the conveniences of the home. The park uses simulation that transports people back to the ancient times of the Bible and then shocks them back to reality by simulating an everyday space that looks surprisingly like that of the outside world. At the Holy Land Experience performance is used not simply as a means of connecting patrons to the overall narrative of the park, it also forms an important technique of social control.
Since the amusement parks of Coney Island, a major problem has been the control of amusement populations. All theme parks, by their nature, invite large numbers of people to their spaces. The crowd is a tradeoff for expensive attractions, and no theme park can be successful without attracting large numbers of people. Neither is an easy task. Since amusement parks became enclosed spaces — most notably at Steeplechase Park — they have proclaimed a powerful mastery over space. By enclosing itself from the outside Steeplechase emphasized a unique vision of the world and provided unity, unlike a carnival or state fair in which disorganized attractions and amusement juxtapositions suggested disunity.
And this unity provided the amusement park with the unique task of controlling the populations that entered its spaces. Contemporary theme parks have increased their attention to the precise control of people. This sort of overall holistic performance conceals its intentions, and it is so effective in its means that it allows the theme park to spread. As it does, it even exceeds itself and soon becomes a form that is unseen and unnoticed — an invisible theme park.
Rides and shows are one of the primary means by which populations are managed within the theme park. In contemporary theme parks careful attention is given to expanding the thematic vistas of the landscape to as many sectors of the map as possible. As people move along, their eyes and other senses participate in an elaborate unfolding story. And when they board a ride, the experience and, most importantly, the time is controlled to precision.
While patrons can be controlled in terms of the timing and pacing of their experiences, a simple fact confronts the theme park: the line. The queue line is not unique to the theme park but may be associated with consumer society in general. On the Internet virtual queue lines have sprung up as people wait to buy concert tickets and other consumable items. Within the theme park, the queue line serves the same function as other lines outside theme parks — purchasing food and souvenirs, and waiting to see a show or ride a ride — but the theme park line can be typically longer than other lines, and thus the theme park must devise a performative strategy to deal with the problem of the line.
After all, why would people choose to wait up to three hours in a line, especially on a hot summer day, just to get on a ride that lasts only a few minutes? One strategy, often employed at Disney theme parks, is to hide lines. Using design techniques, lines shoot out in unknown directions, and just when people believe that they have made it to the ride boarding area, they realize they are not there yet. Line areas are typically themed in accord with the attraction, and this may include sounds from speakers and video screens, foliage and landscaping, and other components that heighten the experience of waiting in line.
Like the progression of cinema, queue line effects and theming help develop the story, and as people approach the ride and are ready to board it, they have already physically and cognitively moved through much of the story that the ride will complete. Queue lines, through their theming, help perform and thus entertain patrons as they wait for the main attraction but, most importantly, people, as they are drawn into the narrative of the attractions, help deliver the performance themselves. A more profound equalizer is needed — one that like animals gave life and movement to the dramas.
Namely, people act as performers. Many theme parks, like the amusement parks of the past, use the stage performance as a means of connecting people with the theme or amusements of the park as well as elevating the overall symbolic importance of the theme park. Stage performances provide patrons with needed respite between rides and eating and importantly act as variety that helps establish a day in a theme park as an overall experience.
In addition to stage performances, all workers, in one way or another, are asked to perform for patrons. When one boards a carnival ride and is confronted At Universal Studios Japan, the ready-made story of Peter Pan is used to create a pyrotechnic, live-action show for patrons. Nothing is beyond it — it is the only truth of the space. In a theme park the worker is costumed, he does not merely operate the ride, and he uses his abilities as a performer to extend the ride in two ways. First, he performs a themed role in the space — one that is consistent with the mood of the ride or venue.
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As a performer he can show the patron a The Curse of DarKastle at Busch Gardens Europe: while aboard, riders experience the simultaneous thrill of ride propulsion, 3D digital media, and special effects. The effect is cinematic, with actors helping create the edits between theme lands. Every inch of the place should be part of a story, as in a movie or television show. Just as the caged animals of Sea Lion Park could never be fully trusted, the theme park worker must be watched A designer at Universal Orlando works on an important part of the performative materials of the theme park.
Most importantly, performative behaviours must be managed and tuned in accord with the philosophy of the particular theme park. Workers must be watched at all times — part of my profession as a theme park trainer — and this includes secret undercover audits in which the theme park trainer performs as a patron would. Undercover audits of this sort have a major bearing on the theme park worker. In theme park training programmes further performances are used to stimulate the effective worker. Role-playing, improvisation and scenarios are deployed by trainers in an attempt to predict situations that they might encounter with real people out in the parks.
Whereas in the past it was possible for customers to observe amusement park workers in naturalistic ways, the contemporary theme park utilizes a dramaturgical approach to the interpersonal. No longer were the interactions of patrons and workers everyday or normal; now each interaction was scripted, with the whole thing becoming a play or act. Now people, just like architecture and geography, became exotic, scripted and performative.
Of course there is a history of inequality in the evolutionary track of the theme park. The earliest amusement parks and world expositions, as much as they offered a democratic opportunity for people to share in the same amusements, were often marked by racialism, segregation and exclusionary rules. As the theme park has evolved, the careful scripting of social interactions, the use of dramaturgy to affect social life, and the development of mechanisms that seek to civilize worker and patron have expanded simultaneously.
When these spaces are themed the ideology is even more at play because the assumption is that the people playing roles workers and the people receiving them patrons are all a part of the scene or the stage. In a general sense, quotidian aspects of the space — most notably the exchanges of commodities and services — become secondary to the drama and role playing which eventually surpasses the functional uses of the space. The unsavoury nature of early amusement parks, with their carnie-like employees, rude social interactions and run-down environs, is replaced by sanitized, predetermined and seamless interactions.
One of the results of these efforts to turn the theme park into a site of dramaturgy is an obsession with the backstage. Within the evolutionary track of the object, just as space within the theme park is zoned according to theme and function, the overall social space of interactions is zoned into the front stage and the backstage. In , it is reported, Disney settled a lawsuit with a family whose daughters experienced the sight of a Disney cartoon character without its head on.
Such incidents, and there have been numerous similar ones, put pressure on the theme park to deliver perfect entertainment, and also place emphasis on the patron to experience a theme park without sutures. The oddities of the world were presented to the amusement park patron to both shock and reassure. While it is debatable whether these places are theme parks — they are smaller in scale and lack notable amusement rides — they clearly use exoticism as a form of entertainment that has become a staple of the theme park industry.
Such places promise an authentic historical or cultural experience by immersing visitors in the sights, smells, tastes and bodily experiences of a culture that has been re-created for the purposes of entertainment, but a debate emerges, can theme parks then educate the public?