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Kenneth R. I see by glimpses now; when age comes on, May scarcely see at all; and I would give, While yet we may, as far as words can give, Substance and life to what I feel, enshrining, Such is my hope, the spirit of the Past For future restoration. In the above lines, however, remember- ing hinges not only upon the impossible task of restoring the past in the present but upon the potential to re-create the past into future hope.

Put otherwise, the boundary between life and writing is constantly constituted and reconstituted in the practice of remembering and revisiting the past moments of import. The second spot of time marks a critical point at which the persona turns into an orphan. Here we find a voluntary estrangement undertaken in order to practice self-governance. Moreover, the persona thinks that he should have distanced himself from his father, or from his former self even though he is well aware of the continuity, particularly because of the very nature of these memories.

That is, memories, the construction of which is possible, are never to be re-enacted in the present; memories disclose constantly shifting versions of the past experience only within a transitory present. Yet the past days seem to be wavering between temporary emergences and lasting disappearance on the surfaces of the text. The young boy, by averting his eyes from the gibbet-mast and fixing them on a girl with a pitcher on her head, overcomes a horrifying encounter with the gibbet-mast, the reminder and grave-marker of an ancient wife-murderer. In the urgent efforts to translate his former experience into language at the present moment, the persona is willing to rewrite lines , this time more succinctly: It was, in truth, An ordinary sight; but I should need Colours and words that are unknown to man, To paint the visionary dreariness Which, while I looked all round for my lost guide, Invested moorland waste, and naked pool, The beacon crowning the lone eminence, The female and her garments vexed and tossed By the strong wind.

The ostensibly unrelated transference from the gibbet-mast to a girl with a pitcher on her head leaves an indelible mark on the young mind. The origin of the strong recollection constitutes the young mind pre- sumably since it involves the impropriety of the thought of mounting the horse independently.

His ambition to be a sovereign person leads him to a threatening experience. The voluntary reprimand corroborates guilty feel- ings both in the young mind and in the persona respectively. This impulse to fracture his own corporeal frame provides the young mind with the possibility of breaking through and liberating itself but also alerts him to the necessity of self-discipline that regulates the unmanageable expansion of his pride. Although the process must be painful for him, he does not pour forth excessive grief on the scene of memory.

Accordingly, the re-written lines foreground a waiting scene: And, afterwards, the wind and sleety rain, And all the business of the elements, The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music of that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist That on the line of each of those two roads Advanced in such indisputable shapes; His wish to rectify the previous desire implies that he might have thought of himself as a future orphan ahead of time. The ret- rospective narrator emphasizes the deserting atmosphere of the waiting scene as if the boy were already abandoned amid the wilderness despite the apparent presence of his two brothers in the scene of his longing expectation of the palfreys that will take him home.

In retrospect, the environment seems to make him feel already forsaken. The instinctive sense of omen means too much for a young boy. Although the persona never spells out his intricate mental state, the implications of the second spot of time emerge on the surface of the tex- tual construct. In his psyche the young boy might oedipalize himself by recalling the past. His extreme sadness caused by the loss of his father appears to surpass his ability to represent and to reinforce linguistic displace- ment; however, he cannot undo the hurting past scenes.

The other humans include the forsaken, vagrants, and the dispossessed, from whom the persona is differentiated and yet inseparable because he always already engages with them. Awed have I been by strolling Bedlamites; From many other uncouth vagrants passed In fear have walked with quicker step; but why Take note of this?

When I began to enquire, To watch and question those I met, and speak Without reserve to them, the lonely roads Were open schools in which I daily read With most delight the passions of mankind, Whether by words, looks, sighs, or tears, revealed; There saw into the depth of human souls, Souls that appear to have no depth at all To careless eyes. The poet educates himself while reading the living texts of the others he encounters. In both spots of time, the persona confesses how difficult it is to render in human lan- guage what he felt in his early days.

On the contrary, rewriting opens up the possibili- ty to expand creative correspondences with the past and future without confining them to fixed spatial-temporal points. The remembered people may not be identical with the real counterparts. In view of the overall structure of The Prelude, the transition from his involvement in the French Revolution Books 9, 10, and 11 to his early childhood Book 12 seems to be too abrupt.

Yet the persona appears to have no other choice than to go through an achronological narration.

It is only after dealing with the most difficult part of his life, i. Turned and returned with intricate delay. He is still mindful that he might be devoured by his memories into the past self, which he views with much anxiety and the need to establish a firm distance. Afraid of being extinguished, the persona wishes to anchor his position on the line of continuity joining the past, the present, and the future. Nor will it seem to thee, O Friend! Meanwhile, my hope has been, that I might fetch Invigorating thoughts from former years; Might fix the wavering balance of my mind, And haply meet reproaches too, whose power May spur me on, in manhood now mature, To honourable toil.

His childhood is not some- thing to be appropriated by the poet and to be diminished by any possible failure of remembering. In the beginning of Book Twelve, thus, Wordsworth justifies his attempts to grapple with the French Revolution and to re-assemble the fragments of his life within an autobiographical poem: Long time have human ignorance and guilt Detained us, on what spectacles of woe Compelled to look, and inwardly oppressed With sorrow, disappointment, vexing thoughts, Confusion of the judgment, zeal decayed, And, lastly, utter loss of hope itself And things to hope for!

Objectivism is a system of philosophy created by philosopher and novelist Ayn Rand — that holds: reality exists independent of consciousness; human beings gain knowledge rationally from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive and deductive logic; the moral purpose of one's life is the pursuit of one's own happiness or rational self-interest. Rand thinks the only social system consistent with this morality is full respect for individual rights, embodied in pure laissez-faire capitalism ; and the role of art in human life is to transform man's widest metaphysical ideas, by selective reproduction of reality, into a physical form—a work of art—that he can comprehend and to which he can respond emotionally.

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Objectivism celebrates man as his own hero, "with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute. Philosophical anarchism is an anarchist school of thought [] which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy and — in contrast to revolutionary anarchism — does not advocate violent revolution to eliminate it but advocates peaceful evolution to superate it.

Philosophical anarchism is a component especially of individualist anarchism. John Simmons and Robert Paul Wolff. Subjectivism is a philosophical tenet that accords primacy to subjective experience as fundamental of all measure and law. In extreme forms like Solipsism , it may hold that the nature and existence of every object depends solely on someone's subjective awareness of it.

For example, Wittgenstein wrote in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus : "The subject doesn't belong to the world, but it is a limit of the world" proposition 5. Metaphysical subjectivism is the theory that reality is what we perceive to be real, and that there is no underlying true reality that exists independently of perception. One can also hold that it is consciousness rather than perception that is reality subjective idealism.

In probability , a subjectivism stands for the belief that probabilities are simply degrees-of-belief by rational agents in a certain proposition, and which have no objective reality in and of themselves. Ethical subjectivism stands in opposition to moral realism , which claims that moral propositions refer to objective facts, independent of human opinion; to error theory , which denies that any moral propositions are true in any sense; and to non-cognitivism , which denies that moral sentences express propositions at all.

The most common forms of ethical subjectivism are also forms of moral relativism , with moral standards held to be relative to each culture or society c. The latter view, as put forward by Protagoras , holds that there are as many distinct scales of good and evil as there are subjects in the world.

Moral subjectivism is that species of moral relativism that relativizes moral value to the individual subject. Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. The term comes from Latin solus alone and ipse self. Solipsism as an epistemological position holds that knowledge of anything outside one's own mind is unsure. The external world and other minds cannot be known, and might not exist outside the mind.

As a metaphysical position, solipsism goes further to the conclusion that the world and other minds do not exist. As such it is the only epistemological position that, by its own postulate , is both irrefutable and yet indefensible in the same manner. Although the number of individuals sincerely espousing solipsism has been small, it is not uncommon for one philosopher to accuse another's arguments of entailing solipsism as an unwanted consequence, in a kind of reductio ad absurdum.

In the history of philosophy, solipsism has served as a skeptical hypothesis. The doctrine of economic individualism holds that each individual should be allowed autonomy in making his or her own economic decisions as opposed to those decisions being made by the state, the community , the corporation etc. Liberalism is a political ideology that developed in the 19th century in England , Western Europe , and the Americas.

It followed earlier forms of liberalism in its commitment to personal freedom and popular government, but differed from earlier forms of liberalism in its commitment to free markets and classical economics. Contemporary individualist anarchist Kevin Carson characterizes American individualist anarchism saying that "Unlike the rest of the socialist movement, the individualist anarchists believed that the natural wage of labor in a free market was its product, and that economic exploitation could only take place when capitalists and landlords harnessed the power of the state in their interests.

English Literature - Romanticism: main features, social context and key concepts

Thus, individualist anarchism was an alternative both to the increasing statism of the mainstream socialist movement, and to a classical liberal movement that was moving toward a mere apologetic for the power of big business. Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought which can be traced to the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production , either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market.

Libertarian socialism, sometimes dubbed socialist libertarianism, [] or left-libertarianism , [] [] is a group of anti-authoritarian [] political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy, [] as well as the state itself. Past and present political philosophies and movements commonly described as libertarian socialist include anarchism especially anarchist communism , anarchist collectivism , anarcho-syndicalism , [] and mutualism [] as well as autonomism , communalism , participism , guild socialism , [] revolutionary syndicalism , and libertarian Marxist [] philosophies such as council communism [] and Luxemburgism ; [] as well as some versions of " utopian socialism " [] and individualist anarchism.

Left-libertarianism, or left-wing libertarianism, [note 1] names several related but distinct approaches to politics , society, culture, and political and social theory, which stress both individual freedom and social justice. Unlike right-libertarians , they believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights, [] [] and maintain that natural resources land, oil, gold, trees ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.

Right-libertarianism, or right-wing libertarianism, is a phrase used by some to describe either non- collectivist forms of libertarianism [] or a variety of different libertarian views some label "right" of mainstream libertarianism including " libertarian conservatism ". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy calls it "right libertarianism", but states: "Libertarianism is often thought of as 'right-wing' doctrine.

This, however, is mistaken for at least two reasons. First, on social—rather than economic—issues, libertarianism tends to be 'left-wing'. It opposes laws that restrict consensual and private sexual relationships between adults e. Second, in addition to the better-known version of libertarianism—right-libertarianism—there is also a version known as ' left-libertarianism '.

Both endorse full self-ownership, but they differ with respect to the powers agents have to appropriate unappropriated natural resources land, air, water, etc.

Individualism - Wikipedia

The anarchist [] writer and bohemian Oscar Wilde wrote in his famous essay The Soul of Man under Socialism that "Art is individualism, and individualism is a disturbing and disintegrating force. There lies its immense value. For what it seeks is to disturb monotony of type, slavery of custom, tyranny of habit, and the reduction of man to the level of a machine. As a credo, individualist anarchism remained largely a bohemian lifestyle, most conspicuous in its demands for sexual freedom ' free love ' and enamored of innovations in art, behavior, and clothing. In relation to this view of individuality, French individualist anarchist Emile Armand advocates egoistical denial of social conventions and dogmas to live in accord to one's own ways and desires in daily life since he emphasized anarchism as a way of life and practice.

In this way he opines "So the anarchist individualist tends to reproduce himself, to perpetuate his spirit in other individuals who will share his views and who will make it possible for a state of affairs to be established from which authoritarianism has been banished. It is this desire, this will, not only to live, but also to reproduce oneself, which we shall call "activity".

The Russian-American poet Joseph Brodsky once wrote that "The surest defense against Evil is extreme individualism, originality of thinking, whimsicality, even—if you will—eccentricity. That is, something that can't be feigned, faked, imitated; something even a seasoned imposter couldn't be happy with. Equally memorable and influential on Walt Whitman is Emerson's idea that "a foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of small minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines.

Some sociologists have criticized the excessive levels of individualism in the United States. Greene, for example, argued that three distinct yet overlapping ideologies of individualism are currently prevalent: 1 The ideology of self-willed wealth; 2 The ideology of full self-reliance; and 3 The ideology of high self-esteem.

Each strand of individualism developed during periods of structural crisis and transition in the U. Individualistic ideologies sidetrack many Americans from acknowledging structural contributors to their nation's problems. The ideologies may cause adherents to believe all low-income individuals are lazy, for example, while dismissing evidence that the American middle class has declined for macro-economic reasons. By causing persons to blame individuals solely for their misfortunes, the three individualistic ideologies perpetuate systems of inequality. The same ideologies can also fuel selfish behaviors.

Greene concluded that Americans are too individualistic in the "wrong" ways preoccupied with attaining individual wealth, full self-reliance, and high self-esteem , while not being individualistic enough in the "right" ways thinking critically and independently as individuals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see personal freedom and personal liberty.

Topics and concepts. Principal concerns. Anarchism Libertarian communism Libertarian socialism Social anarchism. Related topics. Criticism Left-libertarianism Right-libertarianism. Main article: Individual. Main article: Individuation. With the abolition of private property, then, we shall have true, beautiful, healthy Individualism.

Main article: Liberalism. Age of Enlightenment List of liberal theorists contributions to liberal theory. Schools of thought. Regional variants. Bias in academia Bias in the media. Main article: Autarchism. Main article: Individualist anarchism. Main article: Ethical egoism. Main article: Egoist anarchism. Main article: Existentialism. Main article: Freethought. Main article: Humanism. Main article: Hedonism. Main article: Libertine. Main article: Objectivism Ayn Rand. Main article: Philosophical anarchism.

Main article: Subjectivism. Main article: Solipsism. Main article: Mutualism economic theory. Political concepts.

Impossible Individuality: Romanticism, Revolution, and the Origins of Modern Selfhood, 1787-1802

Philosophies and tendencies. Significant events. Main article: Libertarian socialism. Main article: Left-libertarianism.


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Main article: Right-libertarianism. Philosophy portal. Anti-individualism Collectivism Global issue Human nature Market fundamentalism Narcissism Natural and legal rights Negative and positive rights Non-aggression principle Personalism Social issue Voluntaryism. Sundstrom, William A. The Murray Bookchin Reader. New York:Cassell. Sullivan, Mark A. July University of California Press. Collectivism: Our Future, Our Choice".

The Objective Standard. The Road to Serfdom. Susan Brown. Black Rose Books Ltd. Social Forces.

Friedrich von Schlegel: Selected full-text books and articles

Another humanist trend which cannot be ignored was the rebirth of individualism, which, developed by Greece and Rome to a remarkable degree, had been suppressed by the rise of a caste system in the later Roman Empire, by the Church and by feudalism in the Middle Ages. Humanism and Italian art were similar in giving paramount attention to human experience, both in its everyday immediacy and in its positive or negative extremes The human-centredness of Renaissance art, moreover, was not just a generalized endorsement of earthly experience.

Like the humanists, Italian artists stressed the autonomy and dignity of the individual. Journal of the History of Ideas.


  1. Gerald Izenberg, PhD;
  2. The Romantic Self.
  3. Catalogue Search.
  4. Bibliography.
  5. University of Pennsylvania Press. Izenberg 3 June Princeton University Press. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion 1st ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Friedrich von Schlegel: Selected full-text books and articles

    Symbols of Transformation: An analysis of the prelude to a case of schizophrenia Vol. Hull, Trans. Tuttle Co. Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. American Economic Review. Rethinking Schools. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references p. Summary Examines the "fragments", the deliberately unfinished work, of 18th-century European writers and artists.

    This study treats the fragment as a genre, examining the practice of reading, the sexing of forms and the fragment's meaning within the context of the social mythologies of its time. Closure Rhetoric. Bibliographic information. Publication date Related Work Essays on the fragment in the later eighteenth century. ISBN Browse related items Start at call number: PN H