Meat structure in Albania is quite different for the rest of the world. Structure of meat production Eggs production is increased except the period as the result of the privatization process of several large intensive farms. Table 1. Trends in annual production in milk, meat and eggs tons Total Milk 1, The small ruminants are all local breeds. The insemination practice of cows in Albania is based on artificial and natural insemination. For feeding the animals farmers mainly use fresh fodder and hay, of a relatively low quality. Compound feed is used in insignificant quantities, which result from lack of tradition as well as from rather high price of concentrated feed.
Extensive pasture is the most common farming system for the small ruminants but the management of pastures is poor. In small ruminants three systems are used: i extensive system with transhumance, in this system small ruminants are moved late in the spring to the mountain pasture, where they remain until October. During the lambing season, some concentrated food is given to the sheep, ii the extensive system without transhumance- the small ruminants are not moved to other areas, but stay in permanent facilities near the villages during the whole year, grazing in the adjacent pastures and fields; iii home-fed system: The families keep a small number of goats heads or sheep 5—8 heads in order to meet their needs for milk, cheese and meat.
Animal production performance needs to be improved through the strengthening of animal management before approaching future genetic improvement programs. The unsatisfactory result in the daily gain body weight of cattle, small ruminants and pigs are related with several reasons: i lack of meat breeds of cattle and small ruminants; ii lack of specialized farms for meat production in cattle, small ruminants and pigs; iii lack of knowledge of farmers on feeding of fattening animals; iv limited amount of compound feed used in the feed ratio of fattening animals.
Table 2. Amount of milk per cow, ewe, and doe, eggs per layer and kg honey per beehives Description Unit Cows Kg Sheep Kg 41 Food Supply Consumption of livestock products such as meat, milk and eggs are increased considerably times in the last 28 years, as seen in the table 3 and figure 4, below: Table 3. Food Supply Quantity meat and eggs Profile of main value chain operators Farmers. The dairy and meat sector of Albania is characterized by large number of small milk and meat producers.
Approximately farming families are managing cattle for milk and meat production. The number of farms keeping more than 5 cows and more than 50 sheep or goats started to operate in the last 10 years and the trend is to be increased, while the beef fattening farms are very rare. The production of milk, mainly from cows but also from sheep and goats, is the principal focus of livestock production while meat has been mainly the by-product of the dairy sector.
Most of the beef is coming from the dairy farms as the result of the culling animals and their calves. In Albania is lacking the tradition to manage beef breed. In the last 15 years farmers have started to crossbreed their cows with beef breed using the artificial insemination. Very few farms are specialised in bovine meat production and they slaughter their animals in a very low weight, where the average live weight of slaughtered fattening bullocks is about kg authors calculation.
In small dairy farms 1 to 10 cows cows are usually milked by hand, which affects negatively hygiene and food safety.
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Only dairy farms specialized in milk production normally more than 10 cows started use the mobile milking machines over the last years. Farms with more than 50 cows usually have milk storage tanks with cooling system and farms with more than milking cows have milking parlor. There are limited or no financial incentives to increase milk quality, since prices are determined mainly by quantity and fat content. The majority of the milk producers have no information about the microbiological status of their raw milk . Feeding system and input supply: During summer fresh forage, mainly alfalfa and grasses, and grazing in the plots free of crops, are used to feed the cows.
During winter hay and corn or wheat bran are used. Corn or grass silage is used in the ration to feed the animals only by the medium and large dairy farms more than 10 cows. In summer sheep and goats are grazing in meadows. For feeding the animals are used the permanent pasture that are around ha and also about , ha are under forage crops. Several problems are faced with the use of high quality seeds, limited amount of fertilizers applied for the forage crops. In the last 20 years the fodder crops have replaced cereals, especially wheat.
Major inputs into farm-level dairy and beef production are farm-grown forage or pasture and family labor. Concentrate feed is used to a small extent there are not specific statistics on that.
Several traders are involved with the import of: i cereals for animal purpose, ii protein feed- mainly soybean meal, iii animal feed, iv bull semen, and v heifers. Animal feed prices are high and this is an obstacle to the increase of productivity, especially in cows and fattening bulls. Thus, a kilogram of compound feed for cows is 35 percent higher than 1 kg of milk. This figure shows a very fragmented industry, with an average of three employees and processing capacity of 1 — 2 tons of milk per day.
Most of the processing units are small cheese plants with simple traditional technology. The hygiene conditions of most of such small processing plants are not in conformity with requirements of the Albanian6 and the European standards. According to MAFCP  cited by , the industry of milk processing grew in the early s and now has over than processors, with several fully equipped dairies. In about half of the milk production has reached the market tons while the other half is used for consumption, consumption by animals or processed on the farm.
There are 63 registered meat processors, which are operating successfully, but the 5 biggest processors dominate the industry . This means that exist a very weak link between livestock farmers and meat processing industry. Larger milk processors rely on milk collectors for the supply of raw milk. There are two profiles of collectors. First type of collectors, are simply employees of the processing plant who work for the company against a monthly salary. Second type of collectors, act as independent intermediaries — they buy milk from farmers and add a margin to cover cost and profit, and sell to the processor in the context of a long term relation.
Larger processors may have several collectors and may have a combination of them employees and independent. Slaughterhouses and Butchers. Traditionaly, cattle are slaughtered partly on the farm by the farmer or the butcher small slaughter point who then takes the meat to his shop. According to the Albanian law7 the animals must be slaughtered in approved slaughterhouses; but given the small number of slaughterhouses in operation, the small capacity of processing mostly cattle per day , and the distance of the slaughterhouse may be concluded that slaughtering is not properly done.
Fresh meat and its products sold in retail stores are not always guaranteed especially small cities and rural areas due to the partial implementation of the law and shortcomings in infrastructure, including a lack of abattoirs that meet national minimum standards. Slaughterhouses need to be improved and to meet food safety standards. Currently 11 new slaughterhouses meet the required standards .
There is a weak link between the processing industry and domestic supply as raw meat for as long as import prices are low and slaughterhouses are not nearly in line with capacity and required standards . There are several operational modern slaughterhouses in the country, especially of chicken slaughter. The reason for this is that animals are usually slaughtered on the farm or in some cases in local primitive slaughtering on farms or in butcher shops. A different picture can be seen in the area of processing of meat; there are several companies and the largest ones are very close to EU standards.
Milk and meat quality issues: The system for the control of milk and meat quality is still weak and not functioning very well. A part of the milk continues to be sold on the road or directly to the home door what makes difficult the quality control. The control laboratories are not efficient and the farmers have to pay for the 6 Law No. Closed cooling chains from producer to consumer exist only for the producers that are managing more than 10 cows. The same situation is with meat where a major part of animals are not slaughtered in the slaughterhouse.
EU quality and food safety standards are not yet satisfactory implemented, and through the financial support of EU through IPARD-II Program and Albanian Government programs is expected to start the improvement of situation especially for the farms managing more than 10 cows. Milk production and collection system mainly cow's milk is characterized by the existence of the informal market sales by farmers and formal channels to market milk collection and distribution by dairies.
Milk production in Albania still suffers from problems of product quality milk. The small dairy and mixed farms, which are the majority of the farms in the country, produce only small amounts of milk and they do not pay much attention to the quality. In addition, education and awareness of farmers to produce milk with high hygienic conditions are not satisfactory. Most of the raw milk is not refrigerated immediately after milking, and it comes directly from the farmer to the consumer, milk collectors, and milk plants or on the market.
The contracts between farmers and collectors do not exist and the transactions are based on trust and longevity of the relationship between actors .
Wholesalers tend to connect usually small processors with fragmented retail sector. Their role is decreasing as larger companies are improving their production and distribution network — larger companies tend to distribute directly to retailers. Retailers Most consumers buy cheese and other dairy products in specialised groceries. Therefore, such small groceries that trade cheese, other dairy products, olive oil and meat origin products as well as other agro-food traditional products play a crucial role in the dairy value chain.
The emergence of supermarket chains is changing the retail sector structure and patterns. Health situation: The diseases caused by the microbiological contamination of food remain major threats to public health. Brucellosis has been a major health concern [25, 24]. In addition are few problems with Brucellosis and Anthrax in Southern and Northern part of the country in sheep and goats, and recently Tuberculosis in cattle, which make it impossible to export milk, lambs and kids, which in other regions are as organic products. One of the reasons, behind this situation, in addition to weak law enforcement, is also low farmer awareness about animal diseases and food safety standards and their implications in terms of health risks for the farmer households and for the final consumers.
Veterinary and Advisory Services: Veterinary service is provided by private veterinarians — private veterinarian are relatively well-organized and more efficient compared to the agronomic or zootechnical services. Typical veterinarian services including artificial insemination and treatment for diseases are present in most parts of the country. Extension service. The public advisory system consists of agronomist and livestock specialist. The extensionists are in regional and district level, as well in Agricultural Information Centers.
Up to 70, farmers receive free PES support of some kind each year. Private sector advisory is active in the field of animal breeding, especially artificial insemination AI. The input providers have been for a long-time provider of technical advice. Input provides constitute a large and important part of the private extension. However, their activities are not well accounted and in general there is a need to optimize this knowledge and create complementarities and synergies with the public extension sector.
The models in place, the delivery mechanisms adopted, and the types of advice offered are not sufficiently effective, sustainable or viable to support current and evolving agricultural and rural development needs as the agriculture sector, and particularly livestock, seeks to be more competitive to take advantage of the opportunities, and address competitive challenges, of the EU market. However, the weak knowledge of modern production technologies and animal welfare and health requirements are the main problems faced by farmers and where the advisory service needs to work in the future.
In a survey, conducted by the authors during , was found that most farmers are not aware about the institutions in charge of food safety and animal health control. Extension and Veterinary Services must plan awareness, teaching and training programs for livstock farmers to improve safety standards at farm level.
About one-third of the farm holders have agricultural education background. These are likely to be the older farmers, who have accomplished agricultural vocational high schools in the past . Market and Trade World Trade Organization WTO accession in September and the implementation of a number of bilateral free trade agreements with the countries in the region in recent years mean that Albanian producers are facing stiffer competition, specifically as a result of higher quality dairy products being present on the domestic market. In , the main imported products were dairy products and UHT milk, which came mainly from Italy, Greece, Slovenia and other European countries.
With regard to livestock, Albania has a deficit of meat and milk. In , imported 11 tons of milk and dairy products, amounted to more than ALL 1. In addition, there are increased imports of live animals, especially pigs and cattle. Imports of bovine meat is still low, reaching about 1 tons or 4. A considerable number of farmers sell the raw milk and fresh meat that they produce directly to consumers without charging VAT informal market , and thus creating unfair competition for the emerging Albanian milk and meat processing industry.
One important cost factor in the formal market is imposed by regulations and tax restrictions, especially VAT. On the consumer side, there is still a lack of awareness on prices paid for quality. The price that farmers get for their raw milk is fixed based on fat percentage, however, the control is weak and farmers can easily abuse this system.
A major problem for farmers is the lack of a contractual framework and delayed payments. Although the Albanian dairy and meat industry can be characterized by improving technologies, hygienic conditions and control systems, it is still far from being competitive with developed countries. Yet, it is believed that the industry will be able to compete with products from neighboring countries, especially if Albania continues to harmonize programs and practices with those of the European Union. There is evidence that there is significant market potential for some locally-produced animal products.
In particular, lamb meat from selected mountain areas in the South of the country may provide an opportunity for higher added value. Identified urban market segment requires supply of the above-mentioned product all year round with peaks of demand. Products like young goats, beef, milk and cheese may also provide significant market opportunities. Currently, Albania meat and milk products cannot be exported to EU market. The fulfillment of requirements stated by EU legislation is a prerequisite to open the way for Albanian animal products into the EU.
Agricultural Markets In A Transitioning Economy: An Albanian Case Study
The main role of government institutions is to establish an adequate law framework, prepare norms and regulations for the enforcement of the law and ensure, through regulatory and non- regulatory interventions, that all involved actors meet the quality and safety requirements. Government policy for the sector Due to the significance of livestock, particularly in rural areas, MARD has selected the milk and meat sector as a policy priority and the Albanian government is inclined to support primary production and the dairy industry.
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